Water and wastewater

Industry 4.0 measures, such as interconnected sensors, new connectivity such as 5G, and the collection of information on water anomalies can intensify our ability to prevent and respond to harms in the water network, such as, detecting pollutants or leakages. As a result, awareness of the water conditions can be extended further across the network, tapping into new information sources.

However, the same measures also open new entry points for cyber-threats into critical infrastructure which still are packed with legacy systems. As new attack vectors are generated in water service networks, supply chains, organizations and even citizens are now more exposed to threats than ever.


The cyber-threats facing electric-power and gas companies include the typical threats that plague other industries: data theft, DDoS and billing fraud. However, several characteristics of the energy sector heighten the risk and impact of cyberthreats against utilities.

Increased number of threats and actors targeting utilities such as nation-state actors seeking to cause security and economic dislocation or cybercriminals who understand the economic value represented by this sector. Another important vulnerability is utilities’ expansive and increasing attack surface, arising from their geographic and organizational complexity, such as remote sites. Finally, the interdependencies between physical and digital infrastructure make companies vulnerable to exploitation, including billing fraud with smart meters, ransomware, attacks targeting OT systems to stop turbines or generators, and even physical destruction.


Manufacturing companies are now able to collect and leverage massive stores of data to gain valuable business insights into such things as customer demand, inventory management, and competitive differentiation. With advanced analytics and data intelligence, they can learn what it takes to stay lean and agile, accelerating innovation, improving productivity, and enhancing user experiences.

Unique challenges associated with digitisation in manufacturing require solutions that are specific to manufacturers. Consistent security strategies must integrate solutions designed for industrial applications to interoperate as a single system. With Enigmedia, security and OT professionals you can enjoy cybersecurity best practices and streamlined, centralized control of security processes that do not compromise performance ensuring factory availability.


Transportation systems contribute to the life of the city, to the economy and ensure the resilience of the Smart City. The integration of several IT systems enables “Intelligent Public Transport”, where cyber-physical devices, communication networks and central servers optimise the transport service up to a certain degree of automation.

While this fusion of digital transformation, physical infrastructures and mass transport vehicles creates new opportunities for improving services and functionality, it also has the effect of introducing new cyber security risks into transport networks. IPT such as railway systems or transport signalling becomes a natural target for emerging cyber threats that will have an impact not only on the operations of the transport service but also on the whole economy and potentially on the health and safety of citizens.

Smart Buildings

The global market for smart building products is experiencing exponential growth. While IoT devices such as smart light bulbs or air quality sensors can help building owners and tenants optimise operations for cost and time savings, if not well-secured, they can also be easy targets for hackers.

Many end users and owner-operators in smart buildings still view IT and OT cybersecurity as separate challenges. Different concerns and practices seem to justify siloed efforts and separation of responsibilities. However, attackers are already exploiting gaps between IT and OT defenses. For example, spam phishing is commonly used to gain privileges and entry into OT systems. Hackers are using HVAC and other poorly defended OT systems as entry points into data centers and corporate networks.

Mining and Metals

For decades, mining & metals companies relied on legacy ICS and remote non-connected sites that kept them isolated from broader corporate IT systems. The integration of IoT devices into control systems to improve profitability and efficiency, and the subsequent connection of once-isolated OT systems with the entire enterprise network, leaves entire operations open to cyber threats.

The consequences of such threats could be severe. Hackers may find entry to a company’s network and end up directly controlling critical mine safety systems, processing facilities or heavy machinery. Attacks on underground ventilation units, tailings, dam monitoring systems, pipeline controls or gas monitors, for example, could significantly impact worker and community safety. Site exploration is also a major target for cybercriminals as they can obtain valuable industrial secrets, so data and communications must be extremely secure.

Chemical and Pharma

As pharmaceutical & chemical companies continue to embrace digital transformation and make high investments in R+D and intellectual property, their highly sensitive and valuable information becomes even more attractive for cyberattacks. Today’s threat actors are better resourced and more capable of achieving their malicious goals than ever before, such as hackers seeking for financial gain or nation-state sponsored attackers.

What needs to be borne in mind is that there is a chemical or biological transformation and/or separation of materials, which may be hazardous. This underlines the need for utmost caution in preventing cyber-attacks, as part of smooth functioning of a chemical or pharmaceutical plant.

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